Their design was developed by Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. for Standard Oil and the first ships of this type were laid down in early 1940. The T2 design was formalized by the United States Maritime Commission as its medium-sized "National Defense tanker", a ship built for merchant service which could be militarized as a fleet auxiliary in time of war. The T2-SE-A1s were the most numerous Maritime Commission standard tankers built during the war and constituted all but eleven of the T-2 tankers constructed. Although none is in original condition or configuration, all retain the classic T2 turbo electric propulsion, giving 7,240 shaft horsepower. The largest "navy oilers" of the period, after the T3s, nearly 500 were built between 1940 and the end of 1945. 25 of this design were ordered by the Maritime Commission, of which five became Navy oilers as the Chiwawa class.

MarCom subsidized the excess cost of naval features beyond normal commercial standards. By far the most common variety of the T2-type tanker was the T2-SE-A1, another commercial design already being built in 1940 by the Sun Shipbuilding Company for Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.

During that period, average production time from laying of the keel to "fitting out" was 70 days. They were used to transport fuel oil, diesel fuel, gasoline and sometimes black oil-crude oil. 481 were built in extremely short production times by the Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding Company of Mobile, Alabama, the Kaiser Company at their Swan Island Yard at Portland, Oregon, the Marinship Corp. of Sausalito, California, and the Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Company of Chester, Pennsylvania.

Standard T2s were 501 ft 6 in (152.9 m) in total length, with a beam of 68 ft (20.7 m). As was found during the war, the United States Coast Guard Marine Board of Investigation in 1952 stated that in cold weather the ships were prone to metal fatigue cracking, so were "belted" with steel straps. After Pearl Harbor, the United States Maritime Commission ordered this model built en masse to supply U.S. warships already in accelerated production.

Pendleton's sinking is memorialized in The Finest Hours. Twenty-five of this design were ordered by the Maritime Commission, of which five became Navy oilers as the Chiwawa class. Rated at 9,900 tons gross (GRT), with 15,850 long tons deadweight (DWT), standard T2s displaced about 21,100 tons. The T2 tanker, or T2, was a class of oil tanker constructed and produced in large quantities in the United States during World War II. Crew of 23 officers and 329 enlisted men. The T2 design was formalized by the United States Maritime Commission as its medium-sized "National Defense tanker," a ship built for merchant service which could be militarized as a fleet auxiliary in time of war. Steam turbines driving a single propeller at 12,000 horsepower (8,900 kW) delivered a top speed of 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph). After Pearl Harbor, the United States Maritime Commission ordered this model built en masse to supply U.S. warships already in accelerated production, and provide for the fuel needs of US forces in Europe and the Pacific, as well as to replace the tanker tonnage being lost at an alarming rate to German U-boats. By far the most common variety of the T2-type tanker was the T2-SE-A1, another commercial design already being built in 1940 by the Sun Shipbuilding Company for Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. List of T2-SE-A1 Tankers still in active service, Aug 2000.

The T2-SE-A2 variation, built only by Marinship of Sausalito, was nearly identical to the T2-SE-A1 version, only with maximum thrust of 10,000 horsepower (7,500 kW) rather than the former’s 7,240. Example was USS Patuxent, a Kennebec-class oiler. Later, it was concluded the steel used in the war time construction had too high a sulfur content that turned the steel brittle at lower temperatures. MarCom subsidized the excess cost of naval features beyond normal commercial standards. Rated at 9,900 tons gross (GRT), with 15,850 long tons deadweight (DWT), standard T2s displaced about 21,100 tons. Bigger but faster, they were 526 ft (160.3 m) in total length, displaced about 22,445 tons, and were rated at 10,600 tons gross with 16,300 DWT — yet they attained a top speed approaching 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h). The T2 was based on two ships built in 1938–1939 by Bethlehem Steel for Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, Mobilfuel and Mobilube, differing from the Mobil ships principally in the installation of more powerful engines for higher speed.

These were commissioned as … This occurred after two T-2s, Pendleton and Fort Mercer, split in two off Cape Cod within hours of each other.

MarCom subsidized the excess cost of naval features beyond normal commercial standards. A United States Coast Guard Marine Board of Investigation in 1952 stated the ships were prone to splitting in two in cold weather and they were then "belted" with steel straps. [12][13][14][15], United States naval ship classes of World War II, World War II Maritime Commission ship designs, From T-2 to Supertanker: Development of the Oil Tanker, 1940-2000, by Spyrou, Andrew, Engineers at War, By Adrian G Traas, page 115. The T2 tanker, or T2, was a class of oil tanker constructed and produced in large quantities in the United States during World War II.

The T2-SE-A2 variation, built only by Marinship of Sausalito, was nearly identical to the T2-SE-A1 version, except with 10,000 hp (7,500 kW) rather than 7,240. Steam turbines driving a single propeller at 12,000 horsepower (8,900 kW) delivered a top speed of 16 knots (30 km/h). Some 533 T2s were built between 1940 and the end of 1945. This occurred after two T2s, Pendleton and Fort Mercer, split in two off Cape Cod within hours of each other. The A3 variation was essentially an A2 built as a naval oiler from the start, rather than converted later as many A2s were. Six were built for commerce by Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard in Maryland, only to be taken over by the United States Navy following the Attack on Pearl Harbor as the Kennebec-class oiler. Many remained in service for decades after the war, and like other World War II ships pressed into peace time service were the subject of safety concerns. Only the T3 tankers were larger "navy oilers" of the period. Kaiser Shipbuilding Company, Swan Island, Portland, Oregon, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War II tankers of the United States, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/T2_tanker?oldid=4989491. However, the entire fleet had the same dimensions: 523.5 feet long by 68 feet in beam and 39 feet in depth. Active T2 Tankers in August 2000. The T2 design was formalized by the United States Maritime Commission as its medium-sized "National Defense tanker," a ship built for merchant service which could be militarized as a fleet auxiliary in time of war.

This allowed the ships to produce electricity for two years without refueling for the Vietnam War.

Their (steam) turbo-electric transmission system delivered 6,000 shaft horsepower (4,500 kW), with maximum thrust of 7,240 horsepower (5,400 kW), which produced a top-rated speed of about 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) with a cruising range of up to 12,600 miles (20,300 km). Keystone Tankships company ordered five tankers in 1940 from Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock of Chester, Pennsylvania, based on the T2 but longer and with increased capacity; Marcom would designate this design T2-A. Of these, 481 were designated T2-SE-A1, 43 were classed as A2 and one was an A3. The War Shipping Board requisitioned the last remaining T2 and T2-A tankers still in commercial service, Catawba and Aekay, and, with reservations given their limited speed, two nearly-complete Sun T2-SE-A1s, Harlem Heights and Valley Forge. Published by Cornell Maritime

USNS French Creek was the first to arrive in June 1966, then next was USS Kennebago, both installed in Cam Ranh Bay. It was found the steel (that had been successfully used in riveted ship design) was not well suited for the new wartime welding construction. deadweight tonnage of 16,300 and a full load tonnage of 22,445. Their turbo-electric transmission system delivered 6,000 shaft horsepower, with maximum thrust of 7,240 horsepower (5,400 kW), which produced a top-rated speed of about 15 knots (28 km/h) with a cruising range of up to 12,600 miles (20,300 km). A total of 525 T-2 tankers were built in U.S. shipyards between 1942 and 1945. Post war many T2s remained in use; like other hastily built World War II ships pressed into peacetime service, there were safety concerns. [1] Engineering inquiries into the problem suggested the cause was poor welding techniques. Engineering inquiries into the problems suggested at first the tendency of the tankers to split in two was due to poor welding techniques. During that period, average production time from laying of the keel to "fitting out" was 70 days.

Keystone Tankships company ordered five tankers in 1940 from Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock of Chester, PA, based on the T2 but longer and with increased capacity; Marcom would designate this design T2-A. The idea generation to build cargo vessels like the T2 tankers was adopted from a couple of oil cargo vessels built for a shipping conglomerate in the late 1930s. Despite the confusing T3 designation, the T3-S-A1s built by Bethlehem Sparrows Point for Standard Oil of New Jersey were identical to the original T2s except for having less powerful engines of 7700 hp.

As a lifelong student of maritime and naval history, I became interested in some ships of our merchant fleet. List of T2-SE-A1 Tankers still in active service, Aug 2000. Powered by turbine engines rated at 12,000 hp (8,900 kW) with a top speed of 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph). Six were built for commerce by Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard in Maryland, only to be taken over by the United States Navy following the attack on Pearl Harbor as the Kennebec-class oiler. The A3 variation was essentially an A2 built as a Navy oiler from the start, rather than converted later as many A2s were. "Report Tanker Fort Lee Sunk in Indian Ocean". Victory Ships and Tankers: The History of the Known as the Mobifuel and the Mobilube, these two vessels differed from their contemporaries in that, that they were constructed with a primary intent to offer enhanced transition speed. Marine Log, August 2000, Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation; www.marinelog.com. They were 523 ft (159.4 m) long, 68 ft (20.7 m) abeam, with 10,448 gross register tons (GRT) and 16,613 DWT. Glad to see there's still a few left!

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